The Shaken Baby Syndrome Myth
renamed "Abusive Head Trauma" or "Non-Accidental Injury"



* SBS began as an unproven theory and medical opinions, now discredited by biomechanical engineering studies
* No DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS done to eliminate other causes, abuse assumed without evidence
* Shaken Baby diagnostic symptoms not caused by shaking
* Child protective agencies snatch children, destroy families based on medical accusations without proof of wrong-doing
*Poor or deceptive police investigations, falsified reports, perjured testimony threaten legal rights, due process
* Prosecutors seek "victory", over justice; defense attorneys guilty of ineffective counsel, ignorance, lack of effort
* Care-takers threatened, manipulated, in order to force plea bargains, false confessions
* A fractured criminal justice system--a big piece for the rich, a small piece for the poor, and none for alleged SBS cases.



Related websites/ important people and projects ShakenBabySyndrome/Vaccines/YurkoProject
"Shaken Baby Syndrome or Vaccine Induced Encephalitis-- Are Parents Being Falsely Accused?" by Dr Harold Buttram, with Christina England (WEBSITE)
Evidence Based Medicine and Social Investigation:
EBMSI conferences, resources and information Articles and Reports
VacTruth: Jeffry Aufderheide; The SBS conection and other dangerous or deadly side effects of vaccination true, suppressed history of the smallpox vaccine fraud and other books:
Patrick Jordan
Sue Luttner, must-read articles and information on Shaken Baby Syndrome: her resources link
The Amanda Truth Project: Amanda's mother speaks out at symposium
Tonya Sadowsky

SUBJECT: Hepatitis B Vaccination Hazzards and deaths
  1. Hep B vax hazzards
  2. More vax adverse reactions than disease cases
  3. Link: Hep B disease and vax facts
  4. Hep B disease and vax facts info
  5. Link: Newborns
  6. JAMA: Hep B vax for newborns
  7. VacLib: Letter from scientist Bonnie Dunbar
  8. VAERS: Infant deaths following Hep B vax

Hepatitis B Vaccination Hazzard Cited Studies
Hepatitis B Vaccination Adverse Reactions (part 2)
(Scientific Citations)

This site documents hazards associated with the hepatitis B vaccine.

The Hepatitis B Vaccine and Vision Loss:

* Albitar S, et al. Bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis with hepatitis B vaccination. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1997 Oct;12(10):2169-70.

* Achiron LR, et al. Postinfectious hepatitis B optic neuritis. Optom Vis Sci 1994;71:53-6. Arya SC., et al. Ophthalmic complications of vaccines against hepatitis B virus. Int Ophthalmol. 1997;21(3):177-8.

* Baglivo E, et al. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome after hepatitis B vaccine. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996 Sep;122(3):431-2.

* Berkman N, Benzarti T, Dhaoui R, Mouly P., et al. [Bilateral neuro-papillitis after hepatitis B vaccination] Presse Med. 1996 Sep 28;25(28):1301. French.

* Berkman N. [A case of segmentary unilateral occlusion of the central retinal vein following hepatitis B vaccination]. Presse Med. 1997 Apr 26;26(14):670. French.

* Bourges JL, Pisella PJ, Laurens C, Limon S. [Multifocal placoid epitheliopathy and anti-hepatitis B vaccination] J Fr Ophtalmol. 1998 Nov;21(9):696-700. French.

* Brezin A, et al. Visual loss and eosinophilia after recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Lancet. 1993 Aug 28;342(8870):563-4.

* Brezin AP, Massin-Korobelnik P, Boudin M, Gaudric A, LeHoang P., et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy after hepatitis B vaccine. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Mar;113(3):297-300.

* Galli M, Morelli R, Casellato A, et al. Retrobulbar optic neuritis in a patient with acute type B hepatitis. Neurol Sci 1986;72:195-200.

* Granel B, et al. [Occlusion of the central retinal vein after vaccination against viral hepatitis B with recombinant vaccines. 4 cases]. Presse Med. 1997 Feb 1;26(2):62-5. French.

* McKibbin M, et al. Bilateral optic neuritis after hepatitis A. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1995 Apr;58(4):508.

* Voigt U, Baum U, Behrendt W, Hegemann S, Terborg C, Strobel J. [Neuritis of the optic nerve after vaccinations against hepatitis A, hepatitis B and yellow fever] Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd. 2001 Oct;218(10):688-90. German.

The Hepatitis B Vaccine and Hearing Loss:

* Orlando MP, Masieri S, Pascarella MA, Ciofalo A. Filiaci F, et al, ?Sudden hearing loss Consequent to Hepatitis B Vaccination: a case report.? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1997 Dec 29, 830: 319-321

* Biacabe B, Erminy M, Bonfils P, et al, ?A Case of Fluctuant Sensorineural Hearing Loss consequent to Hepatitis B Vaccination: a case report.? Auris Nasus Larynx. 1997 Oct; 24(4): 357-360.

The Hepatitis B Vaccine and Assorted Ailments:

* Herroelen L. de Keyser J. Ebinger G. Central nervous system demyelination after immunization with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Lancet, 1991 Nov 9; 338 (8776):1174-75.

* Ribera ER. Dutka AJ. Polyneuropathy associated with administration of hepatitis B vaccine. N Engl J Med. 1983 Sep 8;309(10):614-5.

* Snider GB. Gogate SA. A possible systemic reaction to hepatitis B vaccine. JAMA 1985 Mar 1;253(9):1260-1.

* Fried M. Conen D. Conzelmann M. Steinemann E. Uveitis after hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet, 1987 Sep 12;2(8559:631-2.

* Shaw FE Jr. Graham DJ. Guess HA, et al. Postmarketing surveillance for neurologic adverse events reported after hepatitis B vaccination. Experience of the first three years. Am J Epidemiol 1988 Feb;127(s):337-52.

* Biron P. Montpetit P. Infante-Rivard C. Lery L. Myasthenia gravis after general anesthesia and hepatitis B vaccine. Arch Intern Med. 1988 Dec;148(12):2685.

* Goolsby PL. Erythema nodosum after Recombivax HB hepatitis B vaccine. N Engl J Med 1989 Oct;321:1198-9.

* Anonymous, hepatitis B vaccines: reported reactions. World Health Organization Adverse Drug Reaction Bulletin. August 1990.

* Cockwell P. Allen MB. Page R. Vasculitis related to hepatitis B vaccine. BMJ 1990 Dec 1;301(6763):1281.

* Tudela P. Marti S. Bonal J. Systemic lupus erthemoatosus and vaccination against hepatitis B. Nephron 1992 62(2):236.

* Ganry O. Lerailler F. Vercelleto M. Chiffoleau A. Larouse C. Peripheral facial paralysis following vaccination against hepatitis B. Apropos of a case. Therapie. 1992;47:437-438.

* Trevisani F. Gattinara GC. Caraceni P, et al. Transverse myelitis following hepatitis B vaccination. J Hepatol 1993 Sep;19(2):317-8.

* Mahassin F. Algayres JP. Valmary J, et al. Acute myelitis after vaccination against hepatitis B. Presse Med 1993 Dec 18;22(40):1997-8.

* Nadler JP. Multiple sclerosis and hepatitis B vaccination. Clin Infect Dis 1993 Nov:17(5):928-9.

* Brezin A. Lautier-Frau M. Hamedani M. Rogeaux O. Hoang PL. Visual loss and eosinophilia after recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Lancet 1993 Aug 28;342(8870):563-4.

* Trevisian G. Stinco G. Lichen rubber planus following HBV vaccination. Acta Dermato-Venereologica 1993 Feb;73(1):73.

* Castresana-Isla CJ. Herrera-Martinez G. Vega-Molina J. Erythema nodosum and Takayasu's arteritis after immunization with plasma derived hepatitis B vaccine. J Rheumatol 1993 Aug;20(8):1417-8.

* Allen MB. Cockwell P. Page RL. Pulmonary and cutaneous vasculitis following hepatitis B vaccination. Thorax 1993 May;48(5):580-1.

* Deisenhammer F. Pohl P. Bosch S. Schmidauer C. Acute cerebellar ataxia after immunisation with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Acta Neurol Scand 1994 Jun;89(6):462-3.

* Vautier G. Carty JE. Acute sero-positive rheumatoid arthritis occurring after hepatitis vaccination. Br J Rheumatol 1994 Oct;33(10):991.

* Hassan W. Oldham R. Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis in health care workers after vaccination. BMJ 1994 Jul 9;309(6967):94.

* Aubin F. Angonin R. Humbert P. Agache P. Lichen planus following hepatitis B vaccination. Archives of Dermatology. 1994 Oct;130(10):1329-30.

* Birley HD. Arya OP. Hepatitis B immunisation and reactive arthritis. BMJ 1994 Dec;309(6967):1514.

* Poullin P. Gabriel B. Thrombocytopenic purpura after recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Lancet 1994 Nov;344(8932):1293.

* Di Lernia V. Lo Scocco G. Bisighini G. Erythema multiforme following hepatitis B vaccine. Ped Derma 1994 Dec;11(4):363-4.

* Fraser PA. Wilson JD. Reiter's syndrome attributed to hepatitis B immunisation. BMJ 1994 Dec;309(6967):1513.

* Lilic D. Ghosh SK. Liver dysfunction and DNA antibodies after hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet 1994 Nov;344(8932):1292-3.

* Brezin AP. Massin-Korobelnik P. Boudin B., et al. Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy after hepatitis B vaccine. Arch Ophthal 1995 Mar;113(3):297-300.

* Gross K. Combe C. Kruger K. Schattenkkirchner M. Arthritis after hepatitis B vaccination. Report of three cases. Scand J Rheumatol. 1995;24(1):50-2.

* Kaplanski G. Retornaz F. Durand J. Soubeyrand J. Central nervous system demyelination after vaccination against hepatitis B and HLA haplotype. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1995 Jun;58(6):758-9.

* Tartaglino LM. Heiman-Patterson T. Friedman DP. Flanders AE. MR imaging in a case of postvaccination myelitis. AJNR Am J Neuroadiol 1995;16(3):581-2.

* Macario F. Freitas L. Correira J., et al. Nephrotic syndrome after recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Clin Nephrol 1995 May;43(5):349.

* Germanaud J. Causse X. Trinh DH., et al. A case of severe cytolysis after hepatitis B vaccination. Amer J Med 1995 Jun;98(6):595-6.

* Meyboom RH. Fucik H. Edwards IR. Thrombocytopenia reported in association with hepatitis B and A vaccines. Lancet 1995 Jun;345(8965):1638.

* Aherne P. Collins M. Psoriatic arthropathy. Irish Medical Journal 1995 Mar-Apr;88(2):72.

* Guiserix J. Systemic lupus erythematosus following hepatitis B vaccine. Nephron 1996;74(2):441.

* Bonfils P. Biacabe B. Potard G. Aidan D. Fluctuant perception hearing loss after hepatitis B vaccine. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac 1996;113(6):359-61.

* Baglivo E. Safran AB. Borruat FX. Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome after hepatitis B vaccine. Am J Ophthalmol 1996 Sep;122(3):431-2.

* Grezard P. Chefai M. Philipott V. Perrot H. Faisant M. Cutaneous lupus erythematosus and buccal aphthosis after hepatitis B vaccination in a 6-year old child. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1996;123(10):657-9.

* Classen JB. The diabetes epidemic and the hepatitis B vaccines. New Zealand Med J. 1996 Sep;109(1030):366.

* Classen JB. Childhood immunisation and diabetes mellitus. New Zealand Med J 1996 May;109(1022):195.

* Manna R. De Santis A. Oliviero A., et al. Leukoencephalitis after recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. J Hepatol. 1996 June;24(6):764-5.

* Devin F. Roques G. Disdier P., et al. Occlusion of central retinal vein after hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet 1996 Jun;347(9015):1626.

* Cohen AD. Shoenfeld Y. Vaccine-induced autoimmunity. J Autoimmunity 1996 Dec;9(6):699-703.

* Mathieu E. Fain O. Krivitzky A. Cryoglobulinemia after hepatitis B vaccination. New England J Med 1996 Aug;335(5):335.

* Dauod MS. Dicken CH. Anetoderma after hepatitis B immunization in two siblings. J Amer Acad Dermo 1997 May;36(5 Pt 1): 779-80.

* Harrison BJ. Thomson W. Pepper L, et al. Patients who develop inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) after immunization are clinically indistinguishable from other patients with IP. Br J Rheumatol 1997 Mar;36(3):366-9.

* Wise RP. Kiminyo KP. Salive ME. Hair loss after routine immunizations. JAMA 1997 Oct 8;278(14):1176-8.

* Song HK. Kim HC. Yun YH. Acute Myelitis after hepatitis B vaccination. J Korean Med Sci 1997 Jun;12(3):249-51.

* Granel B. Disdier P. Devin F, et al. Occlusion of the central retinal vein after vaccination against viral hepatitis B with recombinant vaccines. 4 cases. Presse Med 1997 Feb 1;26(2):62-5.

* Saywell CA. Wittal RA. Kossard S. Lichenoid reaction to hepatitis B vaccination. Australasian J Derm 1997 Aug;38(3):152-4.

* Biacabe B. Erminy M. Bonfils P. A case report of fluctuant sensorineural hearing loss after hepatitis B vaccination. Auris, Nasus, Larynx 1997 Oct;24(4):357-60.

* Arya SC. Ophthalmic complications of vaccines against hepatitis B virus. Int Ophth 1997;21(3):177-8.

* Bracci M. Zopinni A. Polyarthritis associated with hepatitis B vaccination. British J Rheumatol 1997 Feb;36(2):300-1.

* Maillefert JF. Farge P. Gazet-Maillefert MP. Tavernier C. Mental nerve neuropathy as a result of hepatitis B vaccination. Oral Surg Oral Med Orla Path Oral Radio & Endo 1997 Jun;83(6):663-4.

* Ranieri VM. Dell'Erba A. Gentile A., et al. Liver inflammation and acute respiratory distress syndrome in a patient receiving hepatitis B vaccine: a possible relationship?. Intensive Care Medicine 1997 Jan;23(1):119-21.

* Kakar A. Sethi PK. Guillain Barre syndrome associated with hepatitis B vaccination. Indian J Ped 1997 Sept-Oct;64(5):710-2.

* Orlando MP. Masieri S. Pascarella MA., et al. Sudden hearing loss in childhood consequent to hepatitis B vaccination: a case report. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 1997 Dec;830:319-21.

* Pope JE. Stevens A. Howson W. Bell DA. The development of rheumatoid arthritis after recombinant hepatitis B vaccination. J Rheumatol 1998 Sep;25(9):1687-93.

* Neau D. Bonnet F. Michaud M, et al. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura after recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: retrospective study of seven case. Scan J. Infect Dis 1998;30(2):115-8.

* Ronchi F. Cecchi P. Falcioni F, et al. Thrombocytopenic purpura as adverse reaction to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Arch Dis Child 1998 Mar;78(3):273-4.

* Grasland A. Le Maitre F. Pouchot J, et al. Adult-onset Still's disease after hepatitis A and B vaccination? Rev Med Interne 1998 Feb;19(2):134-6.

* Finielz P. Lam-Kam-San LF. Guiserix J. Systemic lupus erythematosus and thrombocytopenic purpura in two members of the same family following hepatitis B vaccine. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998;13(9):2420-1.

* Le Hello C. Cohen P. Bousser MG. Letellier P. Guillevin L: Suspected hepatitis B vaccination related vasculitis. J Rheumatol, 1999 Jan;26(1):191-4.

* Renard JL. Guillamo JS. Ramirez JM, et al. Acute transverse cervical myelitis following hepatitis B vaccination. Evolution of anti-HBs antibodies. Presse Med 1999 Jul 3-10;28(24):1290-2.

* Tourbah A. Gout O. Liblau R. Lyon-Caen O, et al. Encephalitis after hepatitis B vaccination: recurrent disseminated encephalitis or MS? Neurology 1999 Jul 22;53(2):396-401.

* De Keyser F. Naeyaert JM. Hindryckx P, et al. Immune-mediated pathology following hepatitis B vaccination. Two cases of polyarteritis nodosa and one case of pityriasis rosea-like drug eruption. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2000 Jan-Feb;18(1):81-5.

* Konstantinou D. Paschalis C. Maraziotis T, et al. Two episodes of leukoencephalites associated with recombinant hepatitis B vaccination in a single patient. Clin Inf Dis 2001 Nov 15;33:1772-3.

* Creange A. Temam G. Lefaucher JP. Lumbosacral acute demyelinating polyneuropathy following hepatitis B vaccination. Autoimmunity 1999;30:143-6.

* Usman A. Kimyai-Asadi A. Stiller MJ. Alam M. Lichenoid eruption following hepatitis B vaccination: first North American case report. Pediatr Dermatol. 2001 Mar-Apr;18(2):123-6.

* Conesa V. Nunez MF. Navarro JF. Mompel A. Ruiz J. Gomez A. Thrombocytopenic Purpura after Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine. A rare association. Haematologica. 2001 Mar;86(3):E09

* Zaas A. Scheel P. Venbrux A. Helmann DB. Large artery vasculitis following recombinant hepatitis B vaccination. 2 cases. J Rheumatol. 2001 May;28(5):1116-20.

* Al-Khenaizan S. Lichen planus occurring after hepatitis B vaccination: a new case. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001 Oct;45(4):614-5.

* Barbaud A. Trechot P. Reichert-Penetrat S. Weber M. Schmutz JL. Allergic mechanisms and urticaria/angioedema after hepatitis B immunization. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Nov;139(5):925-6.

* Ferrando MF. Doutre MS. Beylot-Barry M. Durand I. Beylot C. Lichen planus following hepatitis B vaccination. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Aug;139(2):350.

* Rabaud C. Barbaud A. Trechot P. First case of erythermalgia related to hepatitis B vaccination. Journal of Rheumatol. 26(1):233-4, 1999 Jan.

* Schupp P. Vente C. Lichen planus following hepatitis B vaccination. International Journal of Dermatol. 38(10):799-800, 1999 Oct.

* Maillefert JF. Sibilia J. Toussirot E., et al. Rheumatic disorders developed after hepatitis B vaccination. Rheumatol (Oxford). 1999 Oct;38(10):978-83.

* Fledelius HC. Unilateral papilloedema after hepatitis B vaccination in a migraine patient. A case report including forensic aspects. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 1999 Dec;77(6):722-4.

* Muller A. Kertzscher F. Kiefel V. Lenk H. Thrombocytopenic purpura: adverse reaction to a combined immunisation (recombinant hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella-vaccine) and after therapy with Co-trimoxazole. Eur J Pediatr. 1999 Dec;158 Suppl 3:S209-10.

* Stewart O. Chang B. Bradbury J. Simultaneous administration of hepatitis B and polio vaccines associated with bilateral optic neuritis. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999 Oct;83(10):1200-1.

* Islek I. Cengiz K. Cakir M. Kucukoduk S. Nephrotic syndrome following hepatitis B vaccination. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000 Jan;14(1):89-90.

* Loche F. Schwarze HP. Thedenat B. Carriere M. Bazex J. Erythema multiforme associated with hepatitis B immunization. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2000 Mar;25(2):167-8.

* Viallard JF. Boiron JM. Parrens M. Moreau JF. Ranchin V. Reiffers J. Leng B. Pellegrin JL. Severe pancytopenia triggered by recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Br J Haematol. 2000 Jul;110(1):230-3.

* Toussirot E. Lohse A. Wendling D. Mougin C. Sjogren's syndrome occurring after hepatitis B vaccination. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2000 Sep;43(9):2139-40.

* Sinsawaiwong S. Thampanitchawong P. Guillain-Barre syndrome following recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and literature review. J Med Assoc Thai. 2000 Sep;83(9):1124-6.

* Agrawal S. Garg VK. Joshi A. Agarwalla A. Sah SP. Lichen planus after HBV vaccination in a child: a case report from Nepal. J Dermatol. 2000 Sep;27(9):618-20.

* Flemmer M. Oldfield EC 3rd. The bald truth. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Apr;94(4):1104.

* Gran B. Bielekova B. McFarland HF. Martin R. Development of Multiple Sclerosis after hepatitis B vaccination. Neurol 2000;54(suppl 3):A164.

* Biasi D. Carletto A. Caramaschi P. Frigo A. Pacor M. Bezzi D., et al. Rheumatological manisfestations following hepatitis B vaccination. Report of three cases. Scand J Rheumatol. 1995;24:50-52.

* Rogerston SJ. Nye FJ. Hepatitis B vaccine associated with erythema nodosum and poly arthritis. BMJ. 1990;301:345.

* Wieland KK. Cohen MR. Hepatitis B vaccine: Recombivax reaction. Nursing. 88;18:87.

* Mamoux V. Dumont C. Lupus erthymatosus disseminatus and vaccination against hepatitis B virus. Arch Pediatr. 1994;1:307-309.

* Martinez E. Domingo P. Evan's syndrome triggered by recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Clin Infect Dis. 1992;15:1051.

* AADRAC. Australian Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee: Reactions to hepatitis B vaccines. Austr Adv Drug React Bull;1990.

* Nagafuchi S. Tokiyam K. Kashiwagi S. Yayashi S. Imayama S. Niho Y. Eosinophillia after intradermal hepatitis B vaccination. Lancet. 1993;342:998.

Hep B: More Adverse Reactions Than Disease Numbers

Contact: 703-938-0342

For immediate release

January 27,1999


National Poll Reveals Majority of Americans Want Informed Consent Rights

Washington, D.C. – The National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) released figures this week which show that the number of hepatitis B vaccine-associated serious adverse event and death reports in American children under the age of 14 outnumber the reported cases of hepatitis B disease in that age group. NVIC is calling the government-mandated hepatitis B vaccination of all children a "dangerous and scientifically unsubstantiated policy." At the same time, a national poll reveals that two thirds of all Americans want the right to make informed, voluntary decisions about vaccination.

Independent analysis of raw computer data generated by the government-operated Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) confirms that in 1996, there were 872 serious adverse events reported to VAERS in children under 14 years of age who had been injected with hepatitis B vaccine. The children were either taken to a hospital emergency room, had life threatening health problems, were hospitalized or were left disabled following vaccination. 214 of the children had received hepatitis B vaccine alone and the rest had received hepatitis B vaccine in combination with other vaccines. 48 children were reported to have died after they were injected with hepatitis B vaccine in 1996 and 13 of them had received hepatitis B vaccine only before their deaths. By contrast, in 1996 only 279 cases of hepatitis B disease were reported in children under age 14. (Click here to see graph)

1997 hepatitis B disease statistics from eight states reinforce the lack of hepatitis B disease in young children, particularly in children under 5 years old. For children under 5 years old, New Hampshire reported 1 case of hepatitis B; Washington state reported 2 cases; Michigan reported 9 cases; and Texas reported 13 cases. Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, New Jersey and Illinois reported no hepatitis B cases in children under 5 years old.(Click here to see graph) By contrast, in 1997 there were a total of 106 VAERS reports of hepatitis B vaccine-related serious adverse events and 10 deaths in children under age 5 living in the eight states with 13 of the reported serious adverse events and 2 deaths occurring in children receiving only hepatitis B vaccine. (Click here to see graph)

There were 24,775 hepatitis B vaccine-related adverse events reported to VAERS in all age groups, including 9,673 serious adverse events and 439 deaths between July 1, 1990 and October 31, 1998. Out of this total, 17,497 reports were in individuals who received only hepatitis B vaccine without any other vaccines. 5,983 of the reports were for serious events and there were 146 deaths, which means that 35 percent of reports in all age groups after receipt of hepatitis B vaccine only are for serious events. (Click here to see graph)

During the same time period, there was a total of 2,424 adverse event reports, with 1,209 serious events and 73 deaths in children under age 14 who got hepatitis B vaccine alone without any other vaccines. This means that 52 percent or 1 out of 2 reports for children under age 14, who only receive hepatitis B vaccine, are for serious events.

VAERS depends primarily upon physicians reporting and causation cannot be conclusively determined without in-depth follow-up of each serious event and death report. NVIC maintains that reports made by doctors to VAERS represent only a small fraction of the vaccine-related injuries and deaths which occur in the U.S. every year. A former FDA Commissioner wrote in JAMA in 1993 that one study showed "only about 1 percent of serious events" attributable to drug reactions are reported to the FDA.

A 1994 NVIC survey of 159 doctors’ offices in 7 states revealed that only 28 out of 159 doctors (18%) said they make a report to the government when a child suffers a serious health problem following vaccination. In New York, only one doctor out of 40 surveyed reported vaccine adverse events to the government.

In a related development, NVIC also released the results of a national poll of 1,000 registered voters, taken by The Polling Company on December 8-11, 1998, which showed that 2 out of 3 (68%) Americans support a parent’s right to be informed of the risks of diseases and risks of vaccines and be able to choose whether or not their children receive certain vaccines which could potentially hurt them. A plurality (45%) of

Americans oppose state laws requiring all five-year olds to get the hepatitis B vaccine before being allowed to attend kindergarten and, when given information about risks of hepatitis B vaccination, 59 percent of respondents were less likely to support such mandatory vaccination laws.

Only 25 percent of Americans believe that people, after getting information about risks and benefits of medical procedures such as the administration of prescription drugs and vaccines, should then be required to follow the orders of their doctors or public health officials. The poll’s margin of error is +/-3.1% at the 95% confidence level (i.e. the same survey could be administered to a similar population and yield comparable results in roughly 19 of 20 cases).

Hepatitis B is primarily an adult disease most often transmitted through infected blood. Highest risk populations are IV drug users and people with multiple sex partners. In 1991 the CDC recommended that all infants be injected with the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth before being discharged from the hospital newborn nursery, even though the only newborns at risk for contracting hepatitis B are those born to hepatitis B infected mothers. By 1998, only 15 states required mandatory screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B infection so babies born to infected mothers could be effectively targeted for hepatitis B vaccination, and yet 35 states required all children to get 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine or be denied entry to daycare, kindergarten, high school or college.

The U.S. has historically had one of the lowest rates of hepatitis B disease in the world even before a hepatitis B vaccine was in use. In 1990, a year before the CDC issued the order for all children to get the vaccine, there were 21,102 cases of hepatitis B reported in the U.S. out of a total US population of 248 million. In 1996, there were 10,637 hepatitis B cases reported. According to the October 31, 1997 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report published by the Centers for Disease Control, "Hepatitis B continues to decline in most states, primarily because of a decrease in the number of cases among injecting drug users and, to a lesser extent, among both homosexuals and heterosexuals of both sexes."

In October 1998, France became the first country to end hepatitis B vaccination requirements for schoolchildren after reports of chronic arthritis, symptoms resembling multiple sclerosis and other serious health problems following hepatitis B vaccination became so numerous that the Health Minister of France suspended the school requirement.

"As more states mandate hepatitis B vaccination, NVIC is getting more reports of children dying or suffering rashes, fevers, seizures, arthritis, diabetes, chronic fatigue and other autoimmune and brain dysfunction following their hepatitis B shots," said NVIC co-founder and president Barbara Loe Fisher. "Newborn babies are dying shortly after their shots and their deaths are being written off as sudden infant death syndrome. Parents should have the right to give their informed consent to vaccination and Congress should give emergency, priority funding to independent scientists, who can take an unbiased look at this vaccine, instead of leaving the search for the truth in the hands of government officials who have already decided to force every child to get the vaccine," she said.

Drug companies marketing the genetically engineered recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine in the U.S. used studies to demonstrate safety which only monitored children for 4 or 5 days after vaccination. Professor Bonnie Dunbar, Ph.D., a Texas cell biologist and pioneering vaccine researcher, said "It takes weeks and sometimes months for autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, to develop following vaccination. No basic science research or controlled, long term studies into the side effects of this vaccine have been conducted in American babies, children or adults." Dr. Dunbar has joined consumers in calling for informed consent to hepatitis B vaccination as well as NIH funding for independent research to determine the biological mechanism for hepatitis B vaccine reactions, to identify high risk factors and to develop therapies to repair vaccine damage.

Founded in 1982, the National Vaccine Information Center is the oldest and largest vaccine safety and informed consent rights advocacy organization representing health care consumers and the vaccine injured. NVIC was instrumental in the creation of the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986, which has paid out nearly $1 billion dollars for vaccine injuries and deaths. For more information or to report a vaccine reaction, call 1-800-909-SHOT or access


* People at high risk for getting hepatitis B disease (which is transmitted by coming into direct contact with an infected person's body fluids) are IV drug users, prostitutes, prisoners, sexually promiscuous persons and babies born to infected mothers. (1)

* 90-95% of all hepatitis B cases recover completely after 3 to 4 weeks of nausea, fatigue, headache, arthritis, jaundice and tender liver. (2)

* Up to 17 percent of all hepatitis B vaccinations are followed by reports of fatigue and weakness, headache, arthritis and fever of more than 100 F.. (3) The vaccine can cause death, according to a 1994 Institute of Medicine report. (4)

* According to Merck and Company: "The duration of the protective effect of [the vaccine] in healthy vacinees is unknown at present and the need for booster doses is not yet defined."

* In 1996, there were 10,637 cases of hepatitis B reported in the U.S. and the CDC stated that "Hepatitis B continues to decline in most states, primarily because of a decrease in the number of cases among injecting drug users and, to a lesser extent, among both homosexual and heterosexuals of both sexes." (5)

* In 1996, 279 cases of hepatitis B disease were reported to have occurred in the U.S. in children under 14 years old. (5)

* An historic report in 1994 published by the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, reviewed the medical literature for evidence that vaccines, including hepatitis B vaccine, can cause a variety of immune and neurological health problems. An independent committee of physician experts concluded that there were no case controlled observational studies or controlled clinical trials conducted on hepatitis B vaccine either before or after licensure to scientifically evaluate persistent reports that hepatitis B vaccine can cause sudden infant death syndrome; Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and other central demyelinating diseases including transverse myelitis, optic neuritis, and multiple sclerosis; and immune system dysfunction including chronic arthritis.

The IOM report concluded: "The lack of adequate data regarding many of the adverse events under study was of major concern to the committee...the committee encountered many gaps and limitations in knowledge bearing directly or indirectly on the safety of vaccines. These include inadequate understanding of the biologic mechanisms underlying adverse events following natural infection or immunization, insufficient or inconsistent information from case reports and case series, inadequate size or length of follow-up of many population-based epidemiologic studies...." (5)

* There are more than 200 vaccines being created by federal health agencies and drug companies, including Hepatitis C, D and E; Herpes simplex types 1 and 2; gonorrhea; rotavirus (diarrhea); Group A and B streptococcus; meningitis A, B and C; and HIV for AIDS. (6)

(1) CDC Prevention Guidelines: A Guide to Action (1997); (2) Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (1994); (3) Merck & Co. Hepatitis B Vaccine product insert (1993); (4) Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines (1994; (5) Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines (1994); (6) The Jordan Report (DHHS-1995).

Remember that with only 1-10% of serious adverse vaccine reactions thought to be reported, the number 53 represents, in all likelihood, between 530 and 5300 Hepatitis B vaccine associated deaths, and that the number 828 represents between 8280 and 82,800 serious injuries. - SM

Hepatitis B Vaccination for Newborns

To the Editor: In their article on the impact of recommendations regarding the birth dose of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine, Dr Daum and colleagues1 concluded that "special efforts may be required to make at-birth administration of HBV vaccination universal." However, since HBV vaccination of newborns has never been shown to be better than vaccination after the maturation of the immune system, this worry about missing the birth dose seems misplaced.

There is no scientific evidence to justify HBV vaccination before the age when those risk factors associated with the HBV transmission (sex, needles, etc) become relevant. Recent risk-benefit analyses show HBV vaccination among children carries one of the largest unjustified risks and substantial financial costs, second only to the new controversial conjugate pneumococcal vaccine.2, 3 Specifically, HBV immunization has been associated with 53 deaths and 828 serious injuries, but for 38 million children younger than age 10 years, the total yearly incidence of HBV infection is 191. For children younger than age 14 years, the estimated total mortality secondary to HBV disease is only 11.2 With such statistics, it is difficult to rationalize HBV vaccination for newborns.

Erdem I. Cantekin, PhD
Department of Otolaryngology
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pa

Michael Belkin
Bainbridge Island, Wash

1. Oram RJ, Daum RS, Seal JB, Lauderdale DS. Impact of recommendations to suspend the birth dose of hepatitis B virus vaccine. JAMA. 2001;285:1874-1879. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT | PDF | MEDLINE

2. Horwin M. Ensuring safe, effective and necessary vaccines for children. Calif West Law Rev. 2001;37:101-148.

3. Orient J. Statement by the AAPS in "Vaccines: Public Safety and Personal Choices" before the Government Reform Committee of the House of Representatives." Presented to: 106th Cong, August 3, 1999; Washington, DC.


In Reply: Dr Cantekin and Mr Belkin question the importance of initiating routine HBV vaccination at birth, a practice whose benefits we described recently.1 They are correct that some behaviors rendering people at high risk for HBV do not begin until adolescence or adulthood. However, a lower but nevertheless substantial incidence of HBV infection affects individuals, including adults and children, who do not engage in these high-risk behaviors.2 Furthermore, there are at least 4 benefits to newborns of HBV-infected mothers. First, it eliminates confusion in birthing units regarding the need for immediate immunization of newborns of mothers whose hepatitis surface antigen status is positive or unknown, thereby avoiding irretrievable missed opportunities to interrupt vertical transmission, which can have tragic consequences.3, 4 Second, rendering children immune to HBV in early infancy provides protection against the small but measurable incidence of HBV infection that is acquired horizontally during childhood. Third, initiation of the 3-dose series at birth has been associated with a higher likelihood of on-time receipt of the entire series of HBV vaccinations,5, 6 and of unrelated immunizations, such as diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis vaccine; inactivated poliovirus vaccine; and measles, mumps, rubella vaccine.5 Fourth, immunization during infancy with integration into a schedule with other vaccinations has the best chance for high coverage and protection for most US children when the burden of disease increases sharply beginning in adolescence. Such a strategy has paid great dividend in the case of rubella immunization.

Risks of this simple neonatal intervention are few. Cantekin and Belkin cite data abstracted from the US Food and Drug Administration/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) reports,7 which passively report data regarding putative adverse events temporally associated with vaccine administration, to indicate that the HBV vaccine has been temporally associated with 53 deaths/y. However, analysis of VAERS data obtained only from newborns immunized with HBV vaccine tells a different story. From 1991 to 1998, 18 reports were submitted to VAERS regarding death in infants who recently had received the HBV vaccine.7 Seventeen of these infants had another plausible diagnosis and had no recognizable syndrome that might have resulted from the HBV vaccine.

We do share the implied view of Cantekin and Belkin that vaccine safety is a great concern and must be an area of constant vigilance. However, we also believe that protection against HBV infection is of great benefit to all members of our society. Initiating the vaccination series with an initial dose of HBV vaccine during the newborn period is the best strategy to ensure the highest level of protection.

Ronda J. Oram, MD
Diane S. Lauderdale, PhD
John B. Seal, MA
Robert S. Daum, MD
Departments of Pediatrics and Health Studies
Pediatric Immunization Program
University of Chicago
Chicago, Ill

1. Oram RJ, Daum RS, Seal JB, Lauderdale DS. Impact of recommendations to suspend the birth dose of hepatitis B virus vaccine. JAMA. 2001;285:1874-1879. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT | PDF | MEDLINE

2. Alter MJ, Hadler SC, Margolis HS, et al. The changing epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States. JAMA. 1990;263:1218-1222. MEDLINE

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Impact of the 1999 AAP/PHS joint statement on thimerosal in vaccines on infant hepatitis B vaccination practices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001;50:94-97. MEDLINE

4. Watson B. Comment. In: Transcript of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee Workshop on Thimerosal in Vaccines. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; August 12, 1999.

5. Lauderdale DS, Oram RJ, Goldstein KP, Daum RS. Hepatitis B vaccination among children in inner-city housing, 1991-1997. JAMA. 1999;282:1725-1730. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT | PDF | MEDLINE

6. Yusef HR, Daniels D, Smith P, Coronado V, Rodewald L. Association between administration of the hepatitis B vaccine at birth and completion of the hepatitis B and 4:3:1:3 vaccine series. JAMA. 2000;284:978-983. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT | PDF | MEDLINE

7. Niu MT, Salive ME, Ellenberg SS. Neonatal deaths after hepatitis B vaccine. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153:1279-1282. ABSTRACT | FULL TEXT | PDF | MEDLINE


Letters Section Editors: Stephen J. Lurie, MD, PhD, Senior Editor; Jody W. Zylke, MD, Contributing Editor.

March 12, 1999
Mr. Robert D. Crider, M.S., M.P.A.
Immunization Division,
Texas Department of Health
1100 West 49th St.
Austin, Texas 78756

Dear Mr. Crider,
Good morning and thank you for this opportunity to discuss some critical health issues. My name is Bonnie Dunbar and I am a research scientist and medical graduate student professor who has worked in the areas of autoimmunity and vaccine development for over twenty five years (the past 17 years at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston).

I am not here today as an official representative of Baylor College of Medicine but as a concerned citizen of Texas and the United States. In fact, I am sure that some of my colleagues would not approve of my appearance. Especially those that are benefiting handsomely from pharmaceutical company income as consultants and expert witnesses while carrying out vaccine clinical trials.

I was honored a few years ago by the National Institutes of Health in Washington D.C. as the "First Margaret Pittman" lecturer for my pioneering work in vaccine development. This was a most special event for me because of Dr. Pittman's contributions to early vaccines and because I understand the impact that some vaccines have had (and will continue to have) on our society. My ongoing research in the area of vaccine development continues to be a major commitment. I have worked extensively with the US Agency for International Development and the World Health Organization programs and have a life long commitment to carrying our research to understand, and hopefully, help to solve world population as well as disease problems.

I am speaking to you today, however, in reference to my experience with the severe adverse effects of the Hepatitis B vaccine. About five years ago, I had two individuals working in my laboratory who were required to take the Hepatitis B vaccine. Both of these individuals developed severe and apparently permanent adverse reactions as a result of this vaccine. Both of these individuals were completely healthy and very athletic before this vaccine and have now suffered severe, debilitating autoimmune side effects from this vaccine. I know the complete medical history of one, Dr. Bohn Dunbar, who is my brother who developed serious rashes, joint pain, chronic fatigue, multiple sclerosis-like symptoms, and now, has been affirmatively diagnosed with POTS (an autoimmune cardiovascular neurological problem) and finally with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. His problems have been attributed to the Hepatitis B vaccine by over a dozen different specialists around the United States of unquestionable medical expertise. He has now been rated permanently and totally impaired at greater than 90%. His health care has already cost the state of Texas around a half million dollars in the Worker's Compensation Program to date, a figure that will continue to rise given the severity of his health condition.

My other student went partially blind following her first booster injection, a medical condition that was markedly exacerbated by her second booster which resulted in long term hospitalization. Personal communications are that her eye-sight is continuing to deteriorate. Because she is in medical school she has been (understandably so) afraid to pursue investigation into her medical problems in the event that they might effect her medical career.

As I have worked extensively in vaccine development I am extremely sensitive to the need to evaluate the risk vs. benefits of any vaccine. Because of my established expertise in this area, it became immediately apparent to me that these two active, healthy individuals working in my laboratory developed "autoimmune" syndromes at a predictable immunological time frame following their booster injections to the Hepatitis B vaccine. After carrying out extensive literature research on this vaccine, it became immediately apparent that the serious adverse side effects of this vaccine (which appear to be related to the nature of the viral protein itself), may be more significant than generally known (or admitted).

I have now been in contact with numerous physicians from several countries, who have independently described the identical severe reactions in thousands of Caucasians. It is obvious that their observations have been, for the most part denied or ignored by the public health systems, as is evidenced by the serious charges against healthcare officials and pharmaceutical companies brought recently in France. I can assure you that the reversal of the vaccine mandate for children in France was not based on lack of documentation. I have now been contacted personally by hundreds or more individuals (including children) with severe health problems and life long disabilities resulting in major medical costs following the administration of this vaccine. In my experience, as with my colleagues, virtually all of these individuals are Caucasians (clearly indicating a genetic linkage).

In my detailed investigation over the past four years it is apparent to me, (as well as others who have been investigating this) that adequate long term follow up information was not collected in clinical trials for this vaccine. This is especially true with respect to the Caucasian populations in which many of these adverse effects would have predictably been observed. In any event, the vaccine inserts which give long lists of serious potential side effects, which I have been told that physicians do not show or discuss with their patients, are ominous!

Many physicians have told me, that if this vaccine is recommended and mandated by government officials, "why should they look at it or discuss it with their patients?" Others have said that their colleagues do not report these incidences because they "don't want to get involved." They also tell me that they have been informed that this vaccine is the safest ever developed because it is a recombinant DNA vaccine and therefore you can't get the disease. Unfortunately, they have clearly missed a major point of basic immunology. Any peptide or protein (regardless of the source of that protein,native or from genetic engineering) when introduced into the body will be "processed by the immune system" and depending on the nature of that protein, could result in long term immune reactions. Sadly, in basic science curriculums of medical schools, many of these details of immunology (a medical research field that has exploded over the last decade) are not taught. In fact, I recently was invited to speak at the Institute of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health on this subject. I was quite shocked when a senior member of a national health committee (involved in recommending mandates for childhood vaccines) came up to me and said: "Very interesting talk. I know you teach beginning medical students. Could you recommend me a basic immunology textbook, I think I need to catch up on some of this immunology stuff."

As the result of extensive literature research as well as our advanced knowledge in the mechanisms of autoimmune disease and Hepatitis B infection, I have discussed these issues with international teams of experts. We have submitted proposals to investigate the scientific basis for these adverse reactions, many which are similar to those reactions from individuals having the virus itself. It is apparent that there are major histocompatability genetic linkages among patients who are having the severe reactions. As many as 10 to 30% are not developing antibodies since they do not respond to this vaccine and are likely not to be protected from the disease anyway.

In our studies, we wish to carry out research to determine the long-term prognosis for patients having such adverse reactions with the hope of developing more specific therapies. Because I have an immunology and biochemistry laboratory we have already collected blood samples throughout the period of these adverse reactions therefore we have a unique pool of serum to begin to scientifically pinpoint the reasons for the adverse reactions. We have significant preliminary evidence which may explain these responses and we will continue to seek funding from private as well as federal sources to continue these studies.

It is apparent that the hepatitis B virus (and vaccine developed from hepatitis B surface antigen) is very unique from many other viruses and vaccines. New theories and experiments (i.e. molecular mimicry and anti-idiotypic antibodies) have been developed which could explain the reasons for autoimmune reactions caused by this virus or the viral protein used in the vaccine. (The December 26 1996, New York Time's article which summarizes studies on "molecular mimicry" theories for viruses causing autoimmune diseases may be right on point). The fact that there are dozens of publications on the correlation of this virus as well as the vaccine with autoimmune and other connective disease disorders provides strong evidence for the correlation of this viral antigen causing autoimmune diseases.

The FDA adverse reaction list now reports over 24,000 individuals with reported adverse reactions. If one dismisses the duplications and antibody non-responder reports, the vast majority of adults who have similar autoimmune associated symptoms including rash, joint pain, chronic fatigue, neurological disorders, neuritis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus like syndrome and multiple sclerosis like syndrome. There are reports by the head of the FDA that these reports indicate only about one percent of the total numbers of adverse reactions.

These reactions clearly appear to be genetic, an observation which may provide us with the basis to evaluate which individuals might have adverse reactions to this vaccine. They may also provide us with information on those that are non-responders and may therefore not be protected by this vaccine even if they receive it. I have no doubt that the pharmaceutical companies are silently working on this because it is obvious from the published literature that these are major issues. In the meantime, how many individuals might be adversely effected before this research has been completed?

I have now been in direct contact with hundreds of severely ill patients (as well as with physicians who have hundreds more patients) clearly having adverse reactions to the hepatitis B vaccine. I feel that it is critical to investigate the early onset effects as well as subsequent development of autoimmune adverse reactions in the hope that we might find more directed treatments to avert the long term effects of those already afflicted with these problems. I believe this is possible in view of new technologies for treatment of autoimmune diseases that are targeted to the identification of specific auto-antibodies to defined epitopes.

No one, especially myself, would ever assert that the hepatitis B virus is not causing serious health problems in the world. However, there are serious questions that remain unanswered:

1. Is the Hepatitis B virus (in its elegance of evolution and survival) a master of molecular mimicry which has produced its surface protein (the one used in the vaccine) to weaken the immune system in some individuals (i.e. inducing autoimmune disease)?

2. Can this vaccine be modified to avoid these adverse reactions or is this a virus which needs to be controlled or eradicated by early treatment or other methods?

3. Can we truly justify giving this vaccine to newborn infants? I would defy any colleague, clinician or research scientist, to claim that we have a basic understanding of the human newborn immune system. It is well established in studies in our animal models that the newborn immune system is very distinct from the adolescent or adult. In fact, we can easily perturb the immune system of the newborn in animal models to ensure that it cannot respond properly later in life.

4. Can we justify mandating this vaccine for all 12 year old children without having clear scientific and medical documentation on:

(a) The duration of the vaccine in children of this age group.

(b) The number of individuals in our state population that will be non-responders to the vaccine. (This is a critical question since section 97.67 of immunization requirements in Texas Elementary and Secondary schools requires that serologic confirmation be given to prove immunity. It is established that a significant percentage of individuals will not have serological immunity against the Hepatitis B vaccine regardless of immunization schedules. Furthermore, large numbers of health care workers who have been subjected to repeated immunization despite lack of serologic immunity have reported serious adverse vaccine reactions.)

(c) The risk of lifelong permanent disability due to this vaccine and the risks among different population groups?

If this, or any other vaccine, by nature of the protein or parts of the protein (native or produced from a cDNA as a recombinant protein), has the ability to adversely effect the immune system of large numbers of individuals resulting in severe adverse reactions (even if restricted to some genetic populations) then the public reaction to all vaccines, including those that clearly DON'T have adverse reactions will be doomed in the public's eye. That includes the development of vaccines to evolving air born viruses which might become a legitimate threat to our society. Thanks to the success of the Human Genome Project and advances in computer programs it may be possible to evaluate potential molecular structure to predict these problems in advance. While pharmaceutical companies complain that extended clinical trials would cost too much, they brag to their shareholders about profits of mandated vaccines.

In conclusion, I would like to relate an observation. In my research on vaccines that have been used successfully for the humane control of animal populations, I have had the opportunity to observe first hand, African elephant family behavior. Whenever a baby cries, the entire herd of up to a hundred will immediately trumpet, and charge with great flurry to surround the infant elephant. When it is apparent that there is no danger, they will one by one touch trunks with that infant, ensuring that he is okay before going about their business. They would certainly never allow a single baby or family member to be exposed to unknown danger.

I would simply ask you in your serious charge of maintaining our public health system that you, as our friends the elephants, listen to the cry of every baby and family member that might be at risk and demand that you have adequate scientific and medical information to make responsible decisions.

I thank you for your attention and would be glad to answer any questions or provide you with additional information.

Bonnie S. Dunbar, PhD, Professor
Department of Cell Biology
Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza
Houston, Texas 77030

Dianne Jacobs Thompson  Est. 2007
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